The Latest

dancingspirals:

ironychan:

hungrylikethewolfie:

dduane:


A loaf of bread made in the first century AD, which was discovered at Pompeii, preserved for centuries in the volcanic ashes of Mount Vesuvius. The markings visible on the top are made from a Roman bread stamp, which bakeries were required to use in order to mark the source of the loaves, and to prevent fraud. (via Ridiculously Interesting)

(sigh) I’ve seen these before, but this one’s particularly beautiful.

I feel like I’m supposed to be marveling over the fact that this is a loaf of bread that’s been preserved for thousands of years, and don’t get me wrong, that’s hella cool.  But honestly, I’m mostly struck by the unexpected news that “bread fraud” was apparently once a serious concern.

Bread Fraud was a huge thing,  Bread was provided to the Roman people by the government - bakers were given grain to make the free bread, but some of them stole the government grain to use in other baked goods and would add various substitutes, like sawdust or even worse things, to the bread instead.  So if people complained that their free bread was not proper bread, the stamp told them exactly whose bakery they ought to burn down.

Bread stamps continued to be used at least until the Medieval period in Europe. Any commercially sold bread had to be stamped with an official seal to identify the baker to show that it complied with all rules and regulations about size, price, and quality. This way, rotten or undersized loaves could be traced back to the baker. Bakers could be pilloried, sent down the streets in a hurdle cart with the offending loaf tied around their neck, fined, or forbidden to engage in baking commercially ever again in that city. There are records of a baker in London being sent on a hurdle cart because he used an iron rod to increase the weight of his loaves, and another who wrapped rotten dough with fresh who was pilloried. Any baker hurdled three times had to move to a new city if they wanted to continue baking.
If you have made bread, you are probably familiar with a molding board. It’s a flat board used to shape the bread. Clever fraudsters came up with a molding board that had a little hole drilled into it that wasn’t easily noticed. A customer would buy his dough by weight, and then the baker would force some of that dough through the hole, so they could sell and underweight loaf and use the stolen dough to bake new loafs to sell. Molding boards ended up being banned in London after nine different bakers were caught doing this. There were also instances of grain sellers withholding grain to create an artificial scarcity drive up the price of that, and things like bread.
Bread, being one of the main things that literally everyone ate in many parts of the world, ended up with a plethora of rules and regulations. Bakers were probably no more likely to commit fraud than anyone else, but there were so many of them, that we ended up with lots and lots of rules and records of people being shifty.
Check out Fabulous Feasts: Medieval Cookery and Ceremony by Madeleine Pelner Cosman for a whole chapter on food laws as they existed in about 1400. Plus the color plates are fantastic.
Jul 28, 2014 / 140,017 notes

dancingspirals:

ironychan:

hungrylikethewolfie:

dduane:

A loaf of bread made in the first century AD, which was discovered at Pompeii, preserved for centuries in the volcanic ashes of Mount Vesuvius. The markings visible on the top are made from a Roman bread stamp, which bakeries were required to use in order to mark the source of the loaves, and to prevent fraud. (via Ridiculously Interesting)

(sigh) I’ve seen these before, but this one’s particularly beautiful.

I feel like I’m supposed to be marveling over the fact that this is a loaf of bread that’s been preserved for thousands of years, and don’t get me wrong, that’s hella cool.  But honestly, I’m mostly struck by the unexpected news that “bread fraud” was apparently once a serious concern.

Bread Fraud was a huge thing,  Bread was provided to the Roman people by the government - bakers were given grain to make the free bread, but some of them stole the government grain to use in other baked goods and would add various substitutes, like sawdust or even worse things, to the bread instead.  So if people complained that their free bread was not proper bread, the stamp told them exactly whose bakery they ought to burn down.

Bread stamps continued to be used at least until the Medieval period in Europe. Any commercially sold bread had to be stamped with an official seal to identify the baker to show that it complied with all rules and regulations about size, price, and quality. This way, rotten or undersized loaves could be traced back to the baker. Bakers could be pilloried, sent down the streets in a hurdle cart with the offending loaf tied around their neck, fined, or forbidden to engage in baking commercially ever again in that city. There are records of a baker in London being sent on a hurdle cart because he used an iron rod to increase the weight of his loaves, and another who wrapped rotten dough with fresh who was pilloried. Any baker hurdled three times had to move to a new city if they wanted to continue baking.

If you have made bread, you are probably familiar with a molding board. It’s a flat board used to shape the bread. Clever fraudsters came up with a molding board that had a little hole drilled into it that wasn’t easily noticed. A customer would buy his dough by weight, and then the baker would force some of that dough through the hole, so they could sell and underweight loaf and use the stolen dough to bake new loafs to sell. Molding boards ended up being banned in London after nine different bakers were caught doing this. There were also instances of grain sellers withholding grain to create an artificial scarcity drive up the price of that, and things like bread.

Bread, being one of the main things that literally everyone ate in many parts of the world, ended up with a plethora of rules and regulations. Bakers were probably no more likely to commit fraud than anyone else, but there were so many of them, that we ended up with lots and lots of rules and records of people being shifty.

Check out Fabulous Feasts: Medieval Cookery and Ceremony by Madeleine Pelner Cosman for a whole chapter on food laws as they existed in about 1400. Plus the color plates are fantastic.

(via aperishableblaque)

amnhnyc:

In the current exhibition, The Power of Poison, objects once believed to protect against poisoning are on display. This spiral fossil comes from the shell of an ammonite, an extinct animal related to a modern nautilus. Such fossils were once known as “snakestones” because of their coiled shape—some artisans even carved snakeheads for them to enhance the resemblance, as seen above. In instances of snakebites and other poisonings, ammonites were thought to have curative powers.
Learn more about poison’s role in myth and legend. 
Jul 2, 2014 / 281 notes

amnhnyc:

In the current exhibition, The Power of Poison, objects once believed to protect against poisoning are on display.
This spiral fossil comes from the shell of an ammonite, an extinct animal related to a modern nautilus. Such fossils were once known as “snakestones” because of their coiled shape—some artisans even carved snakeheads for them to enhance the resemblance, as seen above. In instances of snakebites and other poisonings, ammonites were thought to have curative powers.

Learn more about poison’s role in myth and legend. 

wiflfagrl:

160/365 by ummatiddle on Flickr.
Jun 29, 2014 / 51 notes
selahannsaterstrom:

[Frieke Verle]
Jun 29, 2014 / 4 notes

selahannsaterstrom:

[Frieke Verle]

Jun 29, 2014 / 314 notes

iamjapanese:

Birgitte Thorlacius(Danish, b.1947)

here and here

(via minor-but-fabulous)

cabinporn:

Abandoned A-frames in Lago General Carrera, Chilean Patagonia.
Contributed by Joanna Young.

the colors in this photo are amazing
Jun 27, 2014 / 2,139 notes

cabinporn:

Abandoned A-frames in Lago General Carrera, Chilean Patagonia.

Contributed by Joanna Young.

the colors in this photo are amazing

Jun 26, 2014 / 182 notes

theparisreview:

Katie Paterson’s century-long Future Library art project contemplates the full scale of the publishing process.

mmequaintrelle:

#Wavellite is found in fine specimens at Laharran Quarry near Cork. (by Crazy Dave Green) #mineral #geology #science
Jun 26, 2014 / 289 notes

mmequaintrelle:

#Wavellite is found in fine specimens at Laharran Quarry near Cork. (by Crazy Dave Green)
#mineral #geology #science

(via geologyrocks)

visualcortex:

1897 Antique Coral Reef Illustrationvia pinterest
Jun 26, 2014 / 8 notes

visualcortex:

1897 Antique Coral Reef Illustration
via pinterest

(via to-see-clearly)


Simon Alexandre-Clement Denis - Study of Clouds with a Sunset near Rome (detail)
Jun 26, 2014 / 17,577 notes

Simon Alexandre-Clement Denis - Study of Clouds with a Sunset near Rome (detail)

(via wings-for-nautilus)

amnhnyc:

Found in 1873 near Solnhofen, Germany, this was the first fossil to show the complete wings of a pterosaur. Unearthed from a bed of limestone, this remarkably well-preserved skeleton belonged to Rhamphorhynchus muensteri, a long-tailed, dagger-toothed pterosaur from the Late Jurassic. The fine sediment fossilized not just the bones, but the tissues that formed the wing surface. The animal’s wings were partly folded, forming wrinkles that can still be seen.
See many more pterosaur fossils in the exhibition Pterosaurs: Flight in the Age of Dinosaurs, now open at the Museum. 
Jun 25, 2014 / 551 notes

amnhnyc:

Found in 1873 near Solnhofen, Germany, this was the first fossil to show the complete wings of a pterosaur. Unearthed from a bed of limestone, this remarkably well-preserved skeleton belonged to Rhamphorhynchus muensteri, a long-tailed, dagger-toothed pterosaur from the Late Jurassic. The fine sediment fossilized not just the bones, but the tissues that formed the wing surface. The animal’s wings were partly folded, forming wrinkles that can still be seen.

See many more pterosaur fossils in the exhibition Pterosaurs: Flight in the Age of Dinosaurs, now open at the Museum. 

Jun 25, 2014 / 1,513 notes
Jun 20, 2014 / 2,693 notes

fyeahbookmarks:

by Silvia Cairol

i wish i’d thought of this.

(via fuckyeahbookarts)

Jun 17, 2014 / 371 notes

juxtapozmag:

'Unity' and other Installations by Bohyun Yoon http://bit.ly/1lvjI3C

I’m kind of just in awe of the dismembered body parts hanging from the ceiling, let alone the implications on the wall.

Jun 16, 2014 / 345 notes

hifructosemag:

Surreal paintings by Filipino artist Rodel Tapaya incorporate mythology from his native country. See more on Hi-Fructose.